Gallstones are hard, pebble-like deposits that form inside the gallbladder. Biliary colic is pain caused by a stone temporarily obstructing the cystic duct. Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder from obstruction of the cystic duct. Choledocholithiasis is the presence of a stone in the common bile duct. Cholangitis occurs when a gallstone obstructs the biliary or hepatic ducts, causing inflammation and infection. common bile duct stone causing the obstruction at the distal end of the duct (ampula of vater) can lead to severe pancreatitis with high mortality (death).
- High fat diet
- Liver cirrhosis
- Biliary tract infections
- Ethnic and Hereditary factors
- Impaired gallbladder motility
- Biliary stasis
- In acute cholecystitis, inflammation of the gallbladder with resultant peritoneal irritation leads to well-localized pain in the right upper quadrant, usually with rebound and guarding.
- During an acute attack of biliary colic, the patient may complain of severe, poorly localized upper abdominal pain.
- Nausea and vomiting
- Excess gas
- Abdominal indigestion
- Abdominal fullness
Cholecystectomy is the choice of surgical procedure used to remove gall bladder stone. It can be done by
- Laparoscopic approach
- Open approach