The thyroid gland, located in the anterior neck just below the cricoid cartilage, consists of 2 lobes connected by an isthmus. It is located just below the Adam's apple. There are various conditions of benign and malignant etiology occurring in thyroid gland which requires surgery. Benign causes of thyroid nodules include hyperplastic colloid goiter, thyroid cysts, thyroiditis, thyrotoxicosis and thyroid adenomas. Malignant causes include thyroid cancers.
- It is still not clear as to what exactly causes abnormalities in the thyroid; it is believed that genetic predisposition is one leading cause.
- Other factors include
- Exposure to radiation
- Excessive consumption of soy products
- Excess or shortage of iodine in your diet
- Women who have just delivered or are nearing menopause tend to be in the high-risk category.
- Smokers too are more susceptible to thyroid disorders.
- Swelling in the neck
- Hoarseness of voice
- Partial Thyroidectomy
A benign lesion must be ideally located in either one or both the lobes for this operation to be a choice.
- Thyroid Lobectomy
It is performed for solitary dominant nodules which are worrisome for cancer or those which are indeterminate following fine needle biopsy. Also appropriate for follicular adenomas, solitary hot or cold nodules, or goiters which are isolated to one lobe.
- Subtotal Thyroidectomy
This operation is typical for goiters which are causing problems in the neck or even those which extend into the chest
with thyrotoxicosis under drug control.
- Total Thyroidectomy
It is the operation of choice for all thyroid cancers which are large and non-aggressive in young patients.